Les mobilités partagées (autopartage, vélos en libre-service, covoiturage, VTC, ...) sont en plein essor en Amérique du Nord : Entretien avec Susan Shaheen
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Entretien avec Susan Shaheen, experte des mobilités partagées en Amérique du Nord

Les mobilités partagées (autopartage, vélos en libre-service, covoiturage, VTC, partage de scooters,...) sont en plein essor en Amérique du Nord. La croissance de l'autopartage en est l'une des manifestations les plus impressionnantes. Les chiffres collectés par le Transportation Sustainability Research Center de Berkeley (TSRC) en témoignent : entre 2004 et 2014, le nombre de membres d'un système d'autopartage a été multiplié par 26 aux Etats-Unis !  (de 52.000 à 1,38 millions de membres).

Les vélos en libre-service ont aussi connu un boom ces dernières années, d'abord dans les grandes métropoles, puis dans les plus petites villes. Près de 40 systèmes existent aux Etats-Unis, et l'été 2013 a été marqué par l'ouverture des services majeurs de New York et Chicago. L'explosion a été modérée au Canada et au Mexique, qui comptent respectivement 4 et 3 systèmes en opération.

Quant aux systèmes de VTC, Uber, Lyft et Sidecar, nés dans la Baie de San Francisco, ils s'étendent bien au-delà de leur berceau originel. Au Mexique, Uber est déjà présent dans quatre villes, et le compte twitter de Uber dans la Ville de Mexico compte plus de 10.000 abonnés.

Ces mobilités en partage s'inscrivent dans le contexte d'une région favorable à la voiture solo, où les transports publics font l'objet de moins d'investissements de la part des pouvoirs publics qu'en Europe. Ainsi, elles sont un moyen de combler les insuffisances de l'offre traditionnelle de transports en commun... à condition de parvenir à s'ouvrir au plus grand nombre. Si l'accessibilité est un des défis majeurs du secteur, d'autres doivent être aussi relever pour en tirer le plus grand bénéfice. Il en est ainsi par exemple des partenariats avec les opérateurs de transports traditionnels pour des mobilités sans coutures.

Afin de mieux comprendre ces défis, nous avons rencontré Susan Shaheen, co-directrice du Centre de Recherche de Berkeley pour le Transport Durable (TSRC). Spécialiste de la question, elle suit l'évolution de ce marché et des pratiques associées depuis une vingtaine d'années. Avec les nombreuses études du TSRC à l'appui - la prochaine à paraître ce mois-ci étant consacrée à l'autopartage pair-à-pair aux Etats-Unis - elle explique comment les mobilités partagées peuvent enfin devenir "mainstream", en s'intégrant à l'offre de transport traditionnelle et en touchant une cible toujours plus large.

How do you integrate shared mobilities with more traditional modes of transport? Do you think they might compete with each other?

Integrating shared-use mobilities with government-owned public transit services is regarded as a notable opportunity and challenge in urban transportation. Such integration will help in solving the first-and-last mile problem, creating a valuable synergy between public transportation and shared-use mobility services.

Shared-used mobilities often complement and sometimes compete with public transportation. Bikesharing systems, for example,provide opportunities to complete first-and-last mile connections to public transit networks. That was not possible before. It is a complex situation: shifts away from public transit are most prominent in core urban environments with high population density and transit vehicles often over-crowded at peak periods. Shifts toward public transit in response to bikesharing appear most prevalent in lower density regions on the urban periphery and in less dense regions...*

Les mobilités partagées (autopartage, vélos en libre-service, covoiturage, VTC, partage de scooters,...) sont en plein essor en Amérique du Nord. La croissance de l'autopartage en est l'une des manifestations les plus impressionnantes.


Les mobilités partagées (autopartage, vélos en libre-service, covoiturage, VTC, partage de scooters,...) sont en plein essor en Amérique du Nord. La croissance de l'autopartage en est l'une des manifestations les plus impressionnantes. Les chiffres collectés par le Transportation Sustainability Research Center de Berkeley (TSRC) en témoignent : entre 2004 et 2014, le nombre de membres d'un système d'autopartage a été multiplié par 26 aux Etats-Unis !  (de 52.000 à 1,38 millions de membres).

Les vélos en libre-service ont aussi connu un boom ces dernières années, d'abord dans les grandes métropoles, puis dans les plus petites villes. Près de 40 systèmes existent aux Etats-Unis, et l'été 2013 a été marqué par l'ouverture des services majeurs de New York et Chicago. L'explosion a été modérée au Canada et au Mexique, qui comptent respectivement 4 et 3 systèmes en opération.

Quant aux systèmes de VTC, Uber, Lyft et Sidecar, nés dans la Baie de San Francisco, ils s'étendent bien au-delà de leur berceau originel. Au Mexique, Uber est déjà présent dans quatre villes, et le compte twitter de Uber dans la Ville de Mexico compte plus de 10.000 abonnés.

Ces mobilités en partage s'inscrivent dans le contexte d'une région favorable à la voiture solo, où les transports publics font l'objet de moins d'investissements de la part des pouvoirs publics qu'en Europe. Ainsi, elles sont un moyen de combler les insuffisances de l'offre traditionnelle de transports en commun... à condition de parvenir à s'ouvrir au plus grand nombre. Si l'accessibilité est un des défis majeurs du secteur, d'autres doivent être aussi relever pour en tirer le plus grand bénéfice. Il en est ainsi par exemple des partenariats avec les opérateurs de transports traditionnels pour des mobilités sans coutures.

Afin de mieux comprendre ces défis, nous avons rencontré Susan Shaheen, co-directrice du Centre de Recherche de Berkeley pour le Transport Durable (TSRC). Spécialiste de la question, elle suit l'évolution de ce marché et des pratiques associées depuis une vingtaine d'années. Avec les nombreuses études du TSRC à l'appui - la prochaine à paraître ce mois-ci étant consacrée à l'autopartage pair-à-pair aux Etats-Unis - elle explique comment les mobilités partagées peuvent enfin devenir "mainstream", en s'intégrant à l'offre de transport traditionnelle et en touchant une cible toujours plus large.

How do you integrate shared mobilities with more traditional modes of transport? Do you think they might compete with each other?

Integrating shared-use mobilities with government-owned public transit services is regarded as a notable opportunity and challenge in urban transportation. Such integration will help in solving the first-and-last mile problem, creating a valuable synergy between public transportation and shared-use mobility services.

Shared-used mobilities often complement and sometimes compete with public transportation. Bikesharing systems, for example,provide opportunities to complete first-and-last mile connections to public transit networks. That was not possible before. It is a complex situation: shifts away from public transit are most prominent in core urban environments with high population density and transit vehicles often over-crowded at peak periods. Shifts toward public transit in response to bikesharing appear most prevalent in lower density regions on the urban periphery and in less dense regions...*

 

Snow! Check out our winter riding tips at http://DivvyBikes.com/winter Photo: @Urbangiuseppe.

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With regards to ridesourcing or transportation networking company (TNC) services (Uber, Lyft for example), they appear to both complement and compete with public transportation but more research is needed. In our recent study, ridesourcing vehicles had higher vehicle occupancies than taxi when contrasted in a matched pair analysis. With shorter and consistent wait times, they are actually competing with taxis and other modes. We conducted a survey in San Francisco , where 90 % (on average) of respondents said that they waited ten minutes or less for a ridesourcing vehicle. In comparison, only 35 % of San Francisco respondents said they were waiting less than 10 minutes when calling a taxi from home. Please note, however, this study did not capture e-Hail taxi services, like Flywheel, which are now popular in San Francisco and purportedly have shorter wait times as well. Finally, 66 % of ridesourcing trips would have taken at least the double amount of time than if taken with public transit ...**

 

©Laurent Barelier, Twin Peaks, San Francisco,2013

The aggregation or linkage of different shared modes is also promising. For instance, he recent partnership between carpooling.com and uber aims at providing seamless mobility. Users may now complement their long-distance carpooling trips with a last-first mile connection in Uber. This might be real solution for students who do not own a car, for example. As for any P2P-based service, the major challenge here is to overcome trust-related barriers.

You are a founder of the Shared Use Mobility Centre and take part every year in  the Shared Mobility Summit . It sounds like shared mobilities now have a burgeoning industry association.  Does it help raising the US public sector awareness regarding shared mobility?

In October 2013, the University of California and Berkeley's Transportation Sustainability Research Center (TSRC) hosted the inaugural Shared-Use Mobility Summit in San Francisco. It was a two-day event, which gathered nearly 300 participants, representing close to 200 organizations. Participants included among others mobility providers, policy makers, governmental agencies, non-profits, technologists, academics, media, and affiliated industries.

Following this event, the Shared Used Mobility Center was created in 2014. The center focuses on expanding mobility choices for people by enriching and integrating shared-use mobility services through collaboration and innovation. We help cities fostering shared mobilities at a regional level and put together pilot projects of shared-used mobilities.

I think there is a real interest from public transportation operators to integrate different modes of transport. In 2009, I-Go carsharing (now Enterprise carshare ) and the Chicago Transit Authority partnered to offer a joint carsharing and public transit pass. This was viewed as a notable success. There are however only few of this type of initiatives in North America, due to lack of incentives and institutional barriers. I think the main challenge is not will but institutional barriers. The questions to solve are not easy: how do you collect and manage data (along with ensuring data privacy)? Who is responsible for this task? How do you split the revenues?

Several researches*** show that shared-mobility options are mostly used by urban dwellers. How can we make shared mobility services more accessible to minorities / low income populations?

It is true that the main audience for shared mobilities is mostly young, well educated, upwardly mobile, white, and live in urban areas. But I think that the main challenge is not so much to focus on "low income populations" but rather on accessibility across socio-demographic groups, and how to make shared use mobilities solutions go mainstream.

As for that, communication and awareness are key. There is a low awareness regarding many service options. For example, we've done a study on public perceptions of peer-to-peer carsharing services in the San Francisco Bay area and it appears that fewer than 50 % of San Francisco respondents and 25 % of Oakland residents had heard of peer-to peer carsharing**.

So: how do you expand shared mobilities? It is all about marketing, outreach, and design. We have to make shared mobilities appealing, but also accessible to those who are not familiar with smartphones and other IT technologies. Downloading an app might sound really easy, but it is not so common for some population

Note: a useful distinction between ridesharing and ridesourcing

Ridesourcing is similar to traditional taxis. Despite the claims of some ridesourcing supporters, ridesourcing differs from ridesharing, which involves the grouping of travelers in a private vehicle, each heading to a similar destination, with the goal of reducing congestion, travel costs, fuel consumption, and vehicle emissions.

In comparison, ridesourcing drivers usually do not share a destination with passengers; instead, the driver's motivation is income. In some ways, ridesourcing may become more similar to ridesharing by allowing unrelated passengers to share a ride.**

Pour aller plus loin :

Carsharing market overview, analysis, and trends. Volume 3, Issue 2. Susan Shaheen and Adam Cohen  TSRC, Berkeley, 2014

Peer-to-Peer Carsharing.Exploring Public Perception and Market Characteristics in the San Francisco Bay Area, California. Ingrid Ballús-Armet, Susan A. Shaheen, Kelly Clonts, and David Weinzimmer, Transportation Research Record

* Evaluating public transit modal shift dynamics in response to bikesharing: a tale of two U.S. cities Elliot W. Martin, Susan A. Shaheen, Journal of Transport geography, 2014

** App-Based, On-Demand Ride Services: Comparing Taxi and Ridesourcing Trips and User Characteristics in San Francisco. University of California Transportation Center (UCTC) Working Paper - Lisa Rayle, Susan Shaheen, Nelson Chan, Danielle Dai, Robert Cervero, November 2014

Shared Used Mobility Summit, Retrospective from North America's first gathering on shared-use mobility. Susan Shaheen, Matt Christensen, TSRC, 2014

***sur l'appropriation différentielle des mobilités partagées selon l'origine sociale et le lieu de résidence, voir notamment :

- Mineta Transportation Institute, Public bikesharing in America during a period of rapid expansion : understanding business models, industry trends and user impacts. (Shaheen, Martin, Chan, Cohen, Pogodzinski), 2014

- ITDP - Can shared mobility help low-income people access opportunity ? 2014

- Chronos & l'ObSoCo - Observatoire des mobilités émergentes, 2014

With regards to ridesourcing or transportation networking company (TNC) services (Uber, Lyft for example), they appear to both complement and compete with public transportation but more research is needed. In our recent study, ridesourcing vehicles had higher vehicle occupancies than taxi when contrasted in a matched pair analysis. With shorter and consistent wait times, they are actually competing with taxis and other modes. We conducted a survey in San Francisco , where 90 % (on average) of respondents said that they waited ten minutes or less for a ridesourcing vehicle. In comparison, only 35 % of San Francisco respondents said they were waiting less than 10 minutes when calling a taxi from home. Please note, however, this study did not capture e-Hail taxi services, like Flywheel, which are now popular in San Francisco and purportedly have shorter wait times as well. Finally, 66 % of ridesourcing trips would have taken at least the double amount of time than if taken with public transit ...**

The aggregation or linkage of different shared modes is also promising. For instance, he recent partnership between carpooling.com and uber aims at providing seamless mobility. Users may now complement their long-distance carpooling trips with a last-first mile connection in Uber. This might be real solution for students who do not own a car, for example. As for any P2P-based service, the major challenge here is to overcome trust-related barriers.

You are a founder of the Shared Use Mobility Centre and take part every year in  the Shared Mobility Summit . It sounds like shared mobilities now have a burgeoning industry association.  Does it help raising the US public sector awareness regarding shared mobility?

In October 2013, the University of California and Berkeley's Transportation Sustainability Research Center (TSRC) hosted the inaugural Shared-Use Mobility Summit in San Francisco. It was a two-day event, which gathered nearly 300 participants, representing close to 200 organizations. Participants included among others mobility providers, policy makers, governmental agencies, non-profits, technologists, academics, media, and affiliated industries.

Following this event, the Shared Used Mobility Center was created in 2014. The center focuses on expanding mobility choices for people by enriching and integrating shared-use mobility services through collaboration and innovation. We help cities fostering shared mobilities at a regional level and put together pilot projects of shared-used mobilities.

I think there is a real interest from public transportation operators to integrate different modes of transport. In 2009, I-Go carsharing (now Enterprise carshare ) and the Chicago Transit Authority partnered to offer a joint carsharing and public transit pass. This was viewed as a notable success. There are however only few of this type of initiatives in North America, due to lack of incentives and institutional barriers. I think the main challenge is not will but institutional barriers. The questions to solve are not easy: how do you collect and manage data (along with ensuring data privacy)? Who is responsible for this task? How do you split the revenues?

Several researches*** show that shared-mobility options are mostly used by urban dwellers. How can we make shared mobility services more accessible to minorities / low income populations?

It is true that the main audience for shared mobilities is mostly young, well educated, upwardly mobile, white, and live in urban areas. But I think that the main challenge is not so much to focus on "low income populations" but rather on accessibility across socio-demographic groups, and how to make shared use mobilities solutions go mainstream.

As for that, communication and awareness are key. There is a low awareness regarding many service options. For example, we've done a study on public perceptions of peer-to-peer carsharing services in the San Francisco Bay area and it appears that fewer than 50 % of San Francisco respondents and 25 % of Oakland residents had heard of peer-to peer carsharing**.

So: how do you expand shared mobilities? It is all about marketing, outreach, and design. We have to make shared mobilities appealing, but also accessible to those who are not familiar with smartphones and other IT technologies. Downloading an app might sound really easy, but it is not so common for some population

Note: a useful distinction between ridesharing and ridesourcing

Ridesourcing is similar to traditional taxis. Despite the claims of some ridesourcing supporters, ridesourcing differs from ridesharing, which involves the grouping of travelers in a private vehicle, each heading to a similar destination, with the goal of reducing congestion, travel costs, fuel consumption, and vehicle emissions.

In comparison, ridesourcing drivers usually do not share a destination with passengers; instead, the driver's motivation is income. In some ways, ridesourcing may become more similar to ridesharing by allowing unrelated passengers to share a ride.**

Pour aller plus loin :

Carsharing market overview, analysis, and trends. Volume 3, Issue 2. Susan Shaheen and Adam Cohen  TSRC, Berkeley, 2014

Peer-to-Peer Carsharing.Exploring Public Perception and Market Characteristics in the San Francisco Bay Area, California. Ingrid Ballús-Armet, Susan A. Shaheen, Kelly Clonts, and David Weinzimmer, Transportation Research Record

* Evaluating public transit modal shift dynamics in response to bikesharing: a tale of two U.S. cities Elliot W. Martin, Susan A. Shaheen, Journal of Transport geography, 2014

** App-Based, On-Demand Ride Services: Comparing Taxi and Ridesourcing Trips and User Characteristics in San Francisco. University of California Transportation Center (UCTC) Working Paper - Lisa Rayle, Susan Shaheen, Nelson Chan, Danielle Dai, Robert Cervero, November 2014

Shared Used Mobility Summit, Retrospective from North America's first gathering on shared-use mobility. Susan Shaheen, Matt Christensen, TSRC, 2014

***sur l'appropriation différentielle des mobilités partagées selon l'origine sociale et le lieu de résidence, voir notamment :

- Mineta Transportation Institute, Public bikesharing in America during a period of rapid expansion : understanding business models, industry trends and user impacts. (Shaheen, Martin, Chan, Cohen, Pogodzinski), 2014

- ITDP - Can shared mobility help low-income people access opportunity ? 2014

- Chronos & l'ObSoCo - Observatoire des mobilités émergentes, 2014

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